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Charities for the Poor

Almshouses and Almshouse Charities

Three ancient hospitals, St. Bartholomew, St. Margaret, and St Mary Magdalen, 63 whose medieval history is given in another volume, 64 had all passed into the control of the corporation by the end of the 16th century, and were placed under a system of joint administration in 1636. A fourth hospital, St. Kyneburgh, founded in the 1560's also passed to the corporation.

In 1636 statutes for the government of the three ancient hospitals were promulgated by  the common council. 65 A board of governors comprising, a president, a treasurer, two surveyors, two almoners, and two scrutineers, was to be elected annually and was to hold monthly meetings at St. Bartholomew, the chief hospital; the board was to include the mayor, two aldermen, and other corporation members. Salaried officers - a minister, physician, surgeon, rent gatherer, and `overseer of the manners of the poor' - were to be appointed and given residence at St. Bartholomew, while separate ministers and readers were to be appointed for the two smaller hospitals and paid at the same rate as the almspeople there. The three hospitals were to maintain a total of 77 almspeople aged at least 52 years, precedence being given to burgesses and their wives. Detailed regulations covering behaviour and religious observance were to be enforced. 66

By the early 18th century a single reader was usually appointed for all three hospitals 67 and the office of minister was by then usually held by the incumbent of St. Nicholas's church. 68 In 1779 an attempt to tighten up the administration was made by the common council, which ordered the statutes to be printed and the rules of behaviour to be posted up in the almspeople's rooms. 69 New statutes, differing little from those of 1636, were enacted by the council in 1830. 70 The hospitals continued to be financed for the most part by their medieval endowments, which were administered and leased under the same policy as the corporation property. Occasionally, however, the revenues were found insufficient: in 1641 because of debts it was decided that each new board of governors should collectively supply each year a loan of 40 to supplement the hospitals' finances, 71 and in 1719, when large sums had been borrowed at interest, the corporation decided to apply some of its own income to the hospitals. 72

In 1836, under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act, the three ancient hospitals and St. Kyneburgh were placed under the management of the Gloucester municipal charity trustees. 73 In 1861 St. Margaret and St. Mary Magdalen were amalgamated as the United Hospitals and the following year moved to a new building at the St. Margaret's site on London Road. The Gothic-style brick building, designed by Fulljames and Waller, comprised two quadrangles, one occupied by the United Hospitals, and the other by St. Kyneburgh's Hospital. 74 The United Hospitals were regulated by a scheme of 1875, under which they were to house 21 almspeople aged at least 60, 75   and in 1882 they were amalgamated with St. Kyneburgh to form a single institution, supporting 31 almspeople. 76 In 1890 St. Bartholomew was also united with it, though the old St. Bartholomew's building in the Island remained in use. The united hospital was to have a total of 71 inmates, paid weekly stipends of 8-12s., and any surplus of income was to be paid to out-pensioners. Its revenues were still drawn largely from land, comprising house property in the city and farmland in various parishes in the county. 77 Much land, including most of the city property, was sold between 1917 and 1927. 78

A Scheme of 1934 fixed the number of inmates at 61, and in 1959 31 people were housed at each of the two sites and there were 81 out-pensioners.

The annual income in 1959 comprised 3,508 drawn from stocks and shares, and 1,867 rental of farmland. 79 Alice Poulton, by her will proved 1954 gave the residue of her personal estate, amounting to c. 5,000 in stock and bonds, to provide coal, clothing, and provisions for the almspeople, and a Scheme of 1971 applied that charity and three others administered by the municipal charity trustees to the general support of the aalmshouses. 80 In the mid 20th century the almspeople also received aid from parish charities of St. Nicholas and St. Catharine. 81

The St. Bartholomew's building was given up in 1971 and the hospital was concentrated on the London Road site, where a new block of flats, behind the 19th century almshouses, was opened in 1978. In 1982 the charity opened another new block of flats, in Philip Street in the upper Bristol Road area, and a third new block, in Sherburne Street west of London Road, was opened in 1984.

In 1985 a total of 84 flats for old people was maintained at the three sites. 82

Notes :- 
63         This article was written in 1985.
64         V.C.H. Glos. ii. 118-22; cf. Above, Medieval Glouc., Glouc. 1066-1327; town and religious communities.
65         G.B.R., B 3/2,pp.51-3, records that they were drawn up by a cttee. Appointed by the council, but they were later attributed to Abp. Laud;
14th Rep. Com. Char. 7
66         Glos. Colln. NQ 12.1.
67         G.B.R., B 3/9,ff. 159, 380v; 10, ff. 157v, 164v, 175.
68         G.D.R., vol. 381A,f. 42.
69         G.B.R., B 3/11,f. 259.
70         Ibid. 14.ff.41, 130; Glos. Colln. NQ 12.2.
71         G.B.R., B 3/2,p. 203.
72         Ibid. 9,ff. 65v-66, 71v.
73         Glos. R.O., D 3270/19677,pp. 1, 373.
74         Ibid. 19679, pp.121-2, 129, 150, 172, 208, 235, 262; Glouc. Jnl. 8 Sept. 1860.
75         Glos. Colln. N 12.39 (4).
76         Ibid. N 12.35 (1).
77         Ibid. N 12.257.
78         Glos. R.O., D 3269, Schemes and orders 1865-1934.
79         T. Hannam-Clark, Glouc. Municipal Char. Handbk.(1959), 12-13, 24, 35-6. 
80         Glos. R.O., D 3469/5/67, file marked `almshouses and general'
81         Ibid. file markes `Edw. Nourse and others'; CH 21, Glouc. co. boro.pp. 19, 30.
82         Inf. From Mr. A.G.Keddie, clerk to the trustees of Glouc. minicipal char.

Quoted from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire, volume 4, page 351, by permission of the General Editor.
Submitted by Alan Longbottom

St Bartholomew's Hospital

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, the largest and wealthiest of the three ancient hospitals, stood in the Island between Westgate bridge and the Foreign bridge. In 1535 it supported a master, 5 priests, and 32 almspeople out of its extensive property in Gloucester and outlying parishes, which brought in an annual income of 95-7s-1d. 83 The Crown appointed governors for the hospital in 1547 and 1549, 84 and in 1564 Queen Elizabeth granted the patronage and the reversion of the hospital at the death of the incumbent governor, John Mann, to the corporation; it was to maintain a priest, physician, surgeon, and 40 almspeople and was to be styled the Hospital of St Bartholomew `of the foundation of Queen Elizabeth' 85 An Act of Parliament confirming the grant in 1566 made the bishop of Gloucester visitor to the hospital, and successive bishops exercised that right, notably Martin Benson who made some new regulations in 1745. 86 The corporation took possession of the hospital on the resignation of Mann 87 and in the years 1569-70 rebuilt 19 of the 40 almspeople's rooms and made considerable improvements to other parts of the building. 88

Under the statutes of 1636 St. Bartholomew was to maintain 50 almspeople (20 men and 30 women) at the weekly pay of 2s-6d. 89 William Capel then undertook to build six additional rooms for men. And the full complement was apparently made up in 1648 when the common council decided to place another four women in the hospital. The council planned to build four new rooms in 1655, 90 and at the start of the 18th century, the hospital housed 24 men and 30 women.91

In 1767 Jane Punter gave 500 stock to endow rooms for six additional women, to be paid 1s a week. In 1781 500 came to the hospital under the will of Thomas Ratcliffe dated 1761 and it was decided to use it to add 6d a week to the pay of Jane Punter's women and add two men. 92

In 1825, however, there were 23 men and 36 women in the hospital. 93 The pay of the almspeople was increased by 1s in 1805, that of the Punter women being apparently equalized with that of the others. 94 By 1830 the weekly pay had been increased to 5s-6d. 95.

Apart from those of Punter and Ratcliffe, other grants supplemented the hospital's medieval endowments. A rent charge of 3s-4d a week was distributed to the almspeople under the Crypt school charity established by Joan Cooke in 1540, 96 and in 1859 78 a year was assigned from that foundation. 97 A payment of 5s a year was received under the charity established by Sir Thomas Bell in 1562, 98 and Henry Cugley by will dated 1594 gave 10 a year to buy provisions.

William Goldstone by will dated 1569 gave the hospital houses and lands in St. Catherine's parish. Richard Pate in 1576 gave houses in St. Mary de Lode parish, and Henry Brown by will dated 1659 gave 8 a. in Walham. 99 The ancient endowments of the hospital included small farms in Uley, Brimpsfield, Coaley, Hardwicke, Longdon (Worcs), Castle Moreton (Worcs.), and Minety (Glos., later Wilts.) with a total area of 431 a. in 1731, together with parcels of land in several other parishes and extensive property in the city; c. 62 houses belonged to the hospital in 1781 but the number was reduced to 48 by the 1820's as the result of sales for land-tax redemption and demolitions under city improvement Acts. The total rental of the hospital's lands was 504 in 1781, rising to 889 by 1822 when fines, timber sales, and a small income from stock brought its annual income up to c. 1,070. 1 Additional land, mainly in Awre, was bought for the hospital in the late 1870's and early 1880's 2

The hospital was regulated by a Scheme of 1872 under which the number of almspeople was to be allowed to fall to 40 people, aged at least 60, and any surplus income was used to support non-resident pensioners. 3 In 1890 St. Bartholomew' was amalgamated with the United Hospitals. 4   

The first buildings at the site of St. Bartholomew's Hospital apparently dated from Henry II's reign. 5 A chantry chapel was added c. 1236, 6 and in 1265 the Crown gave land for enlarging the chancel.7 `A great house' of the poor on the west part of the site was mentioned in 1380.8 

Andrew Whitmay, prior of the hospital from 1510 and suffragan bishop of Worcester diocese, 9 rebuilt the hospital on higher foundations to raise it above flood level, adding also a `fair lodging' for his own use. 10 Presumably that work was carried out after 1528 when John Cooke bequeathed 9 to secure the hospital against winter floods. 11 The buildings were said to be ruinous at the time of the grant of 1564, 12 following which considerable work on them was undertaken by the corporation. 13 In the 18th century the chapel, evidently not included in Whitmay's rebuilding, remained a substantial building, mainly of the late 13th century or early 14th 14. Between 1787 and 1790 the hospital was completely rebuilt by the corporation. The new building, designed in gothick style by William price, had a road front with blind arcading, the central bays projecting, 15 and a semicircular bay at the rear which housed the chapel. 16 Following its sale by the municipal charity trustees, it was restored in the early 1980's as a shopping and craft centre.

Notes :-
         Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com,) ii. 488-9.
         Cal. Pat. 1547-8, 193; 1548-9, 244.
         Ibid. 1563-6,pp. 71-2; the full title does not seem to have been used later.
Hockaday Abs. Ccxxiii. 1669; 14th Rep. Com.Char. 6-7. The new statutes made for the three hospitals in 1830 were submitted to the bp. for his his approval, presumably in acknowledgement of that right; G.B.R., B 3/14,f. 130.  
87         Rudder, Glos. 161, 202.
         G.B.R., K 1/14; cf. Ibid J 3/16, f. 61v.
         Glos. Colln. NQ 12.1.
         G.B.R., B 3/2,pp. 53, 479, 853.
         Atkyns, Glos. 192.
         G.B.R., B 3/11, ff. 81v-82. 291v, 296.
14th Rep. Com. Char. 12; the commissioners were at Glouc in Mar. 1825: G.B.R., B 3/14,ff. 24-25.
         14th Rep. Com. Char. 11; G.B.R., B 3/13,f. 8v.
         Glos. Colln. NQ 12.2
         Austin, Crypt Sch. 153-4.
         Glos. Colln. NQ 17.2
            Hockaday Abs. Ccxxiii.
14th Rep. Com. Char. 9-10; G.B.R., J 3/16,f.36 and v.
          14th Rep. Com. Char. 7-9.
          Glos. R.O., D 3269, Schemes and orders 1865-1934.
          Glos. Colln. N 12.35 (2).
          Cal. Inq. Misc. iii, p. 80.
          Hist. & Cart. Mon. Glouc. (Rolls Ser.), i. 245.
          Cal. Pat. 1258-66, 450.
          Ibid. 1377-81, 578.
          V.C.H. Glos. ii. 121.
         leland, Itin. Ed. Toulmin Smith, 11. 59.
         Austin, Crypt Sch. 138.
         Cal. Pat. 1653-6,p. 72.
         Glos. Colln. Prints GL 45.8.
         G.B.R., B 3/12,ff.78v, 84v-85, 119, 133v; above, Plate 57.
         Cf. Glos. R.O., D 3269, bk. Of plans of hosp. Property 1826, no 14.

Quoted from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire, volume 4, page 352, by permission of the General Editor.
Submitted by Alan Longbottom

St Margaret's Hospital

St Margaret's Hospital, which stood outside the city boundary on the south-east side of the

London road, had passed into the control of the burgess community by the late Middle Ages and leading burgesses were appointed to the post of master. 17 In 1546 the hospital had an annual income of 8-12s-0d., 18 and in 1563 the inmates were a reader and 10 poor men. 19 Under the statutes of 1636 it was to support a reader and 8 men at the weekly pay of 2s a week each 20 and its complement of almspeople remained unchanged. In 1805 their pay was increased by 1s a wek, 21 and they were receiving 4s a week in 1825. Those almsmen who were married at the time of their election were allowed to bring their wives into the hospital. 22

The hospital's ancient endowments included houses in the city and parcels of land in the outlying hamlets and other parts of the county. The total rental was 58 in 1781, and 137 in 1822, when the number of houses owned, recently increased by new building, was 22. 23 Under the will of Thomas Horton dated 1735 but not confirmed until 1763, St. Margarets' and St. Mary Magdalen's Hospital shared a rent charge of 10 given for provisions and for a sermon and prayers, and in the proceeds of 100. 24 Alderman John Hayward (d 1758) gave a rent charge of 40s to be distributed among the almsmen of St Margaret at Christmas, and they also received any residue of 15 which was to be paid every five years for repairing Hayward's tomb and part of the pavement in the hospital chapel. 25 In 1822 the total annual income of the hospital was 170. 26 St. Margaret's Hospital was united with St Mary Magdalen in 1861. 27

The hospital was founded before the mid 12th century 28 and the surviving two-celled chapel incorporates 12th century masonry in its west wall. The chapel appears, however, to have been rebuilt in the early 14th century, and new windows were put into the nave in the 15th. The chapel was restored in 1846 and again in 1875; 29 a south vestry was added, the roof was renewed, and the interior was refitted. As well as serving the inmates of the hospital the chapel was used over the centuries by inhabitants of the neighbouring suburbs. That was possibly the reason why in the late Middle Ages the chantry priest maintained by Gloucester Abbey in the chapel was sometimes styled rector 30 and why in the mid 16th century the chapel was said to be parochial. 31

The registers, which survive from the 1790's, include baptisms and burials of residents of the neighbouring London Road area. 32 Use of the chapel by outsiders was probably encouraged by the fact that parts of the area belonged to the extraparochial North and South Hamlets and other parts to St. Catherine's parish, 33 which had no church after 1655. The chapel remained in use By the almspeople in 1985.

In 1560 the domestic buildings included the former prior's lodging, then leased, and the almsmen's lodgings. 34 An old hall is said to have been converted to a barn c. 1589. 35 In the early 19th century the buildings comprised a single tall range, partly timber-framed, and partly stone-built, fronting the main road east of the chapel. 36 It was demolished in 1862 when the new United Hospitals were opened on an adjoining site. 37

Notes :-
17    Above, Medieval Glouc., town and religious communities.
Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii.
19    Ibid. xlii, 1563, dioc.surv.f.15.
20    Glos. Colln. NQ 12.1.
21    G.B.R., B 3/13, f.8v.
14th Rep. Com. Char. 15.
Ibid. 12, 13.
24    Ibid. 13-14; cf. Below, Outlying Hamlets, man.
14th Rep. Com. Char. 14. Hayward's tomb was removed from the chap. on 1846, and in 1857 the municipal char. trustees bought the est. on which the payments were charged. Glos. R.O., D 3270/19678,pp. 430, 471, 475-6. 
14th Rep. Com. Char. 13.
28   V.C.H. Glos. ii. 121.
29   Glouc. Jnl. 15 Aug. 1846; Verey, Glos. ii. 232.
30    Worc. Episc. Reg., Reg. Lynn. F. 5v; Reg. Alcock, ff. 119v, 143v.
31    Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii. 1546, 1558.
32    Glos. R.O., D 3269.
33    Cf. Causton, map of Glouc. (1843).
34    G.B.R., B 2/2.ff.118v-119v.
35    Rudder, Glos. 186.
36    Clarke, Archit Hist of Glouc. plate facing p. 55; Glos. Colln. prints GL 15.5, reproduced above, Plate 55; cf. G.B.R., J 4/1, no 20, which shows other bldgs. E. of that range in 1731. 
Glouc. Jnl. 21 June 1862; above

Quoted from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire, volume 4, page 353, by permission of the General Editor.
Submitted by Alan Longbottom

St Mary Magdalen's Hospital

St. Mary Magdalen's Hospital, known alternatively from 1617 as King James's Hospital, stood on the south side of the London road further out than St. Margaret, near Wotton Pitch. In 1546 it had annual revenues of 3-6s-8d, 38 and in 1563 maintained a reader and six poor men and women. 39 The Crown, which had assumed rights as patron exercised before the Dissolution by Llanthony Priory, 40 appointed governors of the hospital in the later 16th century. In 1573, when John Fenner (or Spring) was appointed, 41 the hospital and all its revenues were held by John Norris under a lease from an earlier governor and the almspeople were left unsupported. After an inquiry Norris was ordered to give up the hospital in 1576. 42  In 1598 the hospital was said to be in ruins and Elizabeth I granted the  patronage to the corporation so that they could carry out repairs. 43

By 1614 an additional 13 almspeople were being maintained at St. Mary Magdalen by its governor, Alderman Thomas Machen, and at his death that year he left 100 to the corporation to support a payment of 6d a quarter to each of them. 44 In 1617 James I granted the governorship of the hospital and its lands and revenues, including a pension of 13 from the Crown, to the corporation; the hospital was to continue to maintain 19 almspeople and was to be renamed the Hospital of King James (though the old name also remained in use).45

The statutes of 1636 provided for 10 men and 9 women to be maintained at the weekly pay of 1s-6d., 46 and the number of almspeople remained unchanged. The weekly pay was increased by 6d in 1805, 47 but in 1824, as an economy measure, the pay of the newly elected inmates was set at 1s-6d. 48 In 1827 the sum of 4 a year, an ancient bequest to the city poor by Leonard Tarne, was added to the weekly pay, 49 and from 1838 the almspeople at St. Mary Magdalen and St. Kyneburgh had an additional 6d. a week, the proceeds of 1,500 received under the will of John Garn (d. 1835).50

The ancient endowments comprised a farm at Hayden, in Cheltenham parish, which covered 58 a. in 1731, some parcels of land in the outlying hamlets of Gloucester, and a few houses in the city. In 1822 the total rental was 155 and the total annual income of the hospital was c. 170. The hospital was by then in an impoverished state, a debt of 522 having accumulated. It was hoped that building then in progress on some of the hospital's land in the London road would eventually improve the finances, but it was still in debt and its buildings ruinous in 1833. 51 St. Mary Magdalen was united with St. Margaret's Hospital in 1861. 52

St Mary Magdalen's Hospital was probably founded in the early 12th century 53 and its small two-celled chapel dating from that period survived relatively unaltered until the mid 19th century. A lancet window was put into the north wall of the chancel in the 13th century, the east window was enlarged in the 15th, and the chancel roof was renewed and a new window put in the south side in the 16th. A west porch of brick was added in the late 18th century or early 19th, and a small west bellcot contained a bell cast by John Rudhall in 1793. 54 By the 1840's the inmates of the hospital attended St. Margaret's chapel and St. Mary Magdalen's chapel became dilapidated. 55 In 1861 the nave was demolished but the richly ornamented south doorway was reset, facing east, in the chancel arch, and the north doorway was set in the south wall of the chancel. 56 The east window was probably restored at that time. The chapel contains the recumbent effigy of a lady, said to have been brought from St. Kyneburgh's cahpel. 57 The chapel was no longer used in 1985.

St. Mary Magdalen's chapel, like St. Margaret's was said to serve a separate parish in the mid 16th century. 58 From at least the early 18th century inhabitants of Wotton, including members of the Blanch family, were buried in the chapel and its burial ground 59 and burials  and baptisms pf people from various neighbouring areas were being registered there in the 1790's. 60 John Blanch (d. 1756) of Barton Street devised 300 in reversion to maintain a minister to read service and preach in the chapel on Sundays; the gift was conditional on the inhabitants of Wotton raising another 100 61 and was apparently never implemented.

The main London road formerly ran close to the north side of the chapel 62 but in 1821 it was diverted to the south side, 63 dividing the chapel from the domestic buildings of the hospital which formed a quadrangle some way to the south. 64 The buildings, which were wholly or partly timber- framed, 65 were refronted following the road diversion, 66 and were demolished in or soon after 1861. 67

Notes :-
         Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii.
         Ibid. xiii, 1563 dioc, surv., f.15.
         Glouc. Corp. Rec. p.119; P.R.O., C 115/K 2/6684,f. 90v.
         Cal. Pat. 1553-4. 406; 1572-5,p. 162.
         Acts of P.C. 1571-5, 391, 399; 1575-7m 126-7.
         Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii.
         G.B.R., G 12/1,f.275 and v; cf. Ibid. B 3/1, f.198 and v.
14th Rep. Com. Char. 15-16. The new name was sometimes given incorrectly as St. James's Hosp. : Atkyns, Glos. 186; G.D.R., vol 381A,f.43.
         Glos. Colln. NQ 12.1.
         G.B.R., B 3/13, f. 8v.
         Ibid. 14, f.213.
         Ibid. B 4/1/4,f.14 and v.
50         He left 2,000 but only 1,500 was received. Glouc. Jnl. 12 Dec 1835; G.B.R., B 3/15 mins. 10 Apr., 10 July 1837, 26, 30 Apr. 5 Dec. 1838. Char Co. file 249996. The char. was transferred from the corp. to the char. trustees in 1878 and merged in the general funds of the United Hospitals in 1882; Glos. R.O., D 3269 Schemes and orders 1865-1934.
14th Rep. Com. Char. 16-17; G.B.R., B 3/14,ff.25v, 212v-213.
         E.J. Kealey, Medieval Medicus (1981), 112.
54      Glos. Colln. prints GL 15.25-7, 37, one reproduced above. Plate 56; H T. Ellacombe Ch. Bells of Glos. (Exeter 1881), 48.
         Glouc. Jnl. 15 Aug. 1846; 6 July 1850; Glos. R.O., D 3270/19678,p.359.
         Glos. Colln. prints GL 15.21; cf. Ibid. GL 15.25, 37.
         Roper, Glos. Effigies, 316-17.
58       Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii., 1546, 1565; cf. P.R.O. E 134/6.8. 7 Geo.I. Trin/I, referring to a deed of 1623 mentioning St. Mary Magdalen's par.  
59         Fosbrooke, Glouc. 154-5.
         Glos. R.O., D 3269
         P.R.O., PROB 11/830 (P.C.C. 182 Herring), L 327v; Glouc. Jnl. 21 Dec. 1756.
         G.B.R., J 4/1, no. 14.
         Glos. R.O., D 204/3/3.
         Ibid. D 3269, bk. of plans of hosp. Property 1824, no. 33.
         Glos. Colln. prints GL. 45.10A-B.
         G.B.R., F 4/15, p. 579.
         Glos. R.O., D 3270/19679, p. 262.

Quoted from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire, volume 4, page 353, by permission of the General Editor.
Submitted by Alan Longbottom

St Kyneburgh's Hospital

St Kyneburgh's Hospital, commonly called the Kimbrose, was founded by Sir Thomas bell, the wealthy Gloucester capper, on the site of St. Kyneburgh's chapel at the south gate. Bell had built and almshouse there by 1559 when he drew up his will leaving it, with endowments, to the city corporation. 68 In 1562, however, he settled it on a body of trustees, who took possession after the deaths of Bell and his wife Joan 69 in 1566 and 1567 respectively. 70 Under the terms of the trust deed the hospital was to maintain six poor people, one of them to be if possible a burgess. It gave the site of Whitefriars, Morin's Mill in Brook Street, six houses, and the rent of another house, having a total nominal value if 16-0s-4d., to support a quarterly payment of 13s-4d to each of the almspeople, and gave substantial endowments for other charitable purposes and to provide for property repairs. The trustees did not, as was intended, fill vacancies in their own number and only two remained in 1598 when they acquired licence to transfer the hospital and its endowments to the corporation. The transfer, which was prompted by the corporation's energetic management of St. Bartholomew's Hospital after 1564, was completed in 1603 71 and the corporation retained St. Kyneburgh under its direct management until 1836.

The original endowment was supplemented by the gift of a house from Thomas Hobbs in 1608, 72 and Margaret Norton by will dated 1689 gave the interest on 30, 73 for which 1 a year was received in the 1820's. In 1763 Susanna Cooke gave 40 for provisions on St. Thomas's day, and 2 in cash was distributed for that gift in the 1820's. 74 In 1833 the annual income of the hospital was 42. The inmates, whose number remained at six, were then receiving 1s-6d. a week each and an annual sum of 10-7s. divided amongst them. 75 A plan in 1835 to use surplus funds to buy stock and raise the weekly pay by 6d. a week 76 may not have been implemented but an increase at that rate was made in 1838 under John Garn's bequest. 77

In the mid 19th century the almshouse remained as built by Bell, comprising a low range of building with five doorways to the almsrooms. 78 An older building, which survived adjoining the west end, housed the sixth almsman. 79 The almshouse was demolished after 1862 when the inmates were rehoused in the new building on London road. 80 A Scheme of 1861 increased the number of almspeople to 10, who were to be aged at least 60 and receive between 7s-6d and 10s a week. 81 St. Kyneburgh was amalgamated with the United Hospitals in 1882. 82

Notes :-
68    G.D.R., wills 1566/150.
    Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii.
70    Fosbrooke, Glouc. 165-6.
71    Hockaday Abs. ccxxiii., which gives full transcripts of the trust deeds.
72    Ibid.
73    P.R.O., PROB 11/397 (P.C.C. 180 Ent), f. 330 and v.
   14th Rep. Com. Char. 21; G.B.R., B 3/11, f. 34.
G.B.R., B 3/14, f. 213.
76    Ibid. f. 258v.
77    Above, St. Mary Magdalen's Hosp.
78    Drawing (reproduced above, Plate 54) in copy of Fosbrooke, Glouc., in Glos. Colln. 10675.
79    G.D.R., wills 1566/150; cf. Rudder, Glos. 204.
80    Glos. R.O., D 3270/19679, pp. 249, 262.
81    Glos. Colln. N 12.37.

Quoted from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire, volume 4, page 354, by permission of the General Editor.
Submitted by Alan Longbottom

Other Almshouses

A number of other almshouses were established in Gloucester in the late 16th century and in the 17th but some were short lived, probably as a result of lack of endowment.

Alderman William Hill (d. 1636) left 80 to build a house outside the south gate in which six poor people of the south ward were to be placed by the corporation. 83 The house was built and almspeople were regularly maintained there by the corporation, 84 though there was apparently no endowment for repairs or weekly pay. Sarah Wright by will dated 1667 gave 6s. a year to buy coal for the almspeople. 85 The house was demolished at the same time as the south gate in 1781 and the existing almspeople were found other lodgings. They were not, however, replaced when they died and only two remained c. 1811. 86

Alderman John Baugh  (d. 1621) devised the remainder of his 300 year lease of the former St. Thomas's chapel, by the river Twyver in the later Dean's Walk, for an almshouse and devised an adjoining orchard to provide for maintenance of the building, which was divided into four tenements; the master and four almsmen of St. Bartholomew's  Hospital were to settle poor burgesses there. In 1631, however, the administrator of Baugh's will assigned the lease to a Gloucester mercer, 87 and following a Chancery suit brought by the corporation it was conveyed in 1633 to a group of common councillors who were to implement the will. 88 It is not known whether almsmen were ever settled in the building, which was demolished before 1692, probably at the siege of 1643. 89

Alderman John Hayward (d. 1640) built two almshouses near St. John's church and left other property to St. John's parish as an endowment. 90 Two widows were houses there in 1738 when Alderman Samuel Browne left a rent charge of 10s. to help support them. 91 The houses were pulled down in 1804 and the widows were moved to two new houses built on parish property adjoining lower Northgate Street. The widows each received an annual pension of 50s. in the early 19th century 92 and 16 in the 1890's. 93 The houses were apparently sold c. 1934, and by the early 1960's the proceeds of the endowment were being applied for general charitable purposes in the parish. 94

Almshouses founded by Mr Pate, presumably Richard Pate (d. 1588), and by Alderman Thomas Semys (d. 1603) were said to have existed in 1643, and Richard Keylock, presumably the man who served as sheriff in 1627, was said to have provided houses for two men in St. John's parish. Nothing was known of those three foundations in the mid 18th century. 95 Almshouses recorded in Holy Trinity parish between 1614 and 1645 96 were apparently four houses in Bull lane given by a Mr Peach, 97 and John Cromwell by will dated 1679 left two houses in Hare Lane to be used, after the deaths of the tenants, to house poor people of St. John's parish' 98 no later record has been found of those almshouses in use. John Harvey Ollney (d. 1836) left 8,000 to the city corporation to found an almshouse for 18 poor people and provide them with a weekly allowance. 99 The corporation obtained a site for the house, apparently as a gift in 1846 1 but Chancery proceedings begun in 1848 to secure the legacy and similar gifts to Tewkesbury, Cheltenham, and Winchcombe, were unsuccessful. 2

Notes :-
83    G.D.R. wills 1636/120.
G.B.R., G 12/1, f. 200; Rudder, Glos. 204.
85    16th Rep. Com. Char. 11-12.
86    Rudge, Glouc. 141.
87    G.D.R., wills 1621/53; G.B.R., J 1/1958B.
88    G.B.R., J 1/1959.
89    Below, Churches and Chapels, non-par. chap. 
90    G.D.R., wills 1640/113.
91    Ibid. 1738/159.
92    16th Rep. Com. Char. 7.
93    Glos. R.O., P 154/9/CH 1/1.
94    Ibid. 2; cf. Ibid. CH 10/1, Scheme 1972.
95    Glos. R.O., D 327, p. 374; and for those three men, Fosbrooke, Glouc. 136, 209, 211; below, Aldermen of Glouc. 1483-1835.
96    G.D.R., wills 1614/21; Glouc. Cath. Libr. MS. 26.
97    Bodl. MS Top. Glouc. c.3,f.50.
98    G.D.R. wills 1680/75.
99   Glos.Chron. 30 Jan. 1836; 24 Nov. 1838.
1    Glouc. Jnl. 17 Jan. 1846; G.B.R., B 4/1/6.p. 231.
G.B.R., B 4/1/6.pp.343, 359, 389.; B 3/17,f. 378.

Quoted from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire, volume 4, page 355, by permission of the General Editor.
Submitted by Alan Longbottom

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